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The Future of the Ex-FARC Mafia

Colombia is at a crossroads. Several paths lay before it. One sees the ex-FARC mafia consigned to the dustbin of history in a short period of time. However, there...
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Ex-FARC Mafia, Venezuela and the Current International Climate

After 2002, under increasing pressure from security forces, the FARC moved much of their leadership, logistics and funding outside of Colombia, particularly to...
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The Criminal Portfolio of the Ex-FARC Mafia

With Colombia now producing more cocaine than ever before, the rise of illegal mining, as well as widespread extortion, the ex-FARC mafia has all the resources it...
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The Tipping Point: Iván Márquez Deserts the Peace Process

In August 2019, the nature of the ex-FARC mafia changed from a localized nuisance to a national security threat. Iván Márquez and several of the more notorious...
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The Evolution of the Ex-FARC Mafia

Even before the signing of the 2016 peace agreement between the FARC and the Colombian government, it was clear that not all of the former guerillas would welcome...
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Sucumbíos: Lawless Ecuador Border Province Is Sanctuary for Traffickers

In January 2019, heavily armed gunmen traveling in a truck and on a motorbike ambushed a small group of anti-narcotics agents in Sucumbíos, the Ecuadorean province...
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Esmeraldas: An Ecuador Province Gripped by Drug Conflict

For the Ecuadorean province of Esmeraldas on the Pacific side of the Colombia border, 2019 began with a warning that the horrors of the past year were no...
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Ecuador: A Cocaine Superhighway to the US and Europe

Little attention is paid to Ecuador. The murder rate is low, and there are no drug cartels like those that have dominated the criminal landscape in Mexico and...
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ELN Gains Upper Hand Over EPL in Norte de Santander, Colombia

A recent split within the EPL guerrilla force has left it weakened and allowed its rival, the ELN, to gain an advantage in Norte de Santander, a Colombian...
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Kidnappings in Venezuela’s Táchira Tell Different Tale than Government Data

Venezuela's northern border state of Táchira saw a jump in kidnappings during the first six months of 2019 -- a likely consequence of armed groups roaming the...
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Wild West of Honduras: Home to Narcos and Their Politicians

On a December morning in 2018, Javier Erazo, known as “El Huita,” took to his hammock after a horseback ride at his farm in Ocotepeque, a town on the western...
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Ex-FARC Mafia: Colombia’s Criminal Army Settling Down in Venezuela

The announcement in late August that three important former leaders of the demobilized FARC were returning to war did not only threaten the fragile Colombian peace...